Agric science obj and theory

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1a) commercial agricultural is a type of agriculture which is
concerned with the production of food,animal and cah crops in large
quantities of sales. It involvess the cultivations of large hectares
of land, huge investment of capital, the use of hired labour and the
use of agro-chemicals
1b)
* They assist in rural development by providing social amenities like,
road,water supply,health centers.
* They carry out research to improve or develop new crops varieties
* The carry out research to improve or develop breeds of animals
* Provision of financial support for agricultural extension project
* Improvement of farmer awarness and agricultural knowledge
1c)
– Construction of new feeder roads to open up the rural areas
– Construction of wider ways to link up the river in areas
– Construction of railways to connect rural area to the urban centers
1cii)
– it prevent fragmentation of land since land aquired under the decree
cannot be shared into bit
– it has facilitated borrowing of capital for further investment in agriculture
– it has reduce in the number and frequency of court case over land ownership
– it made land acquisition relatively easier for new entrant into agriculture
3a)weathering can be defined as the breakdown of rock into tiny
pieces to form soil.
3b)
1. planting cover crops:cover crops help to provide shade,prevent
erosion and add more nutrients to the soil.
2. application of compost manure:it help to blind the sand particles
together and also add more nutrients to the soil.
3. application of farmyard manure:this will add nutrients and also
improve the structure of the soil.
4. mulching the soil:mulching sandy soil prevent water loss
through evaporation and nutrient loss by water erosion.
3c)
1.it determines the level of fertility of the soil.
2.a good soil structure support aeration.
3.it also prevent erosion and wodertogging.
4.a good soil structure has a good water retaining capacity.
5.it also supports the growth of crops.
3d)
1.limestone-cacos
2.slakedlime-ca(OH)2 3.quicklime-cao
4.calcium bicabonate-ca(HCO3)2
5.gypsum-caso42H20
5a)
1.aphids
2.cohoonstriners
3.mealy bugs
5b)
– 1.maize-(1)dentmaize(2)flourcorn
– 2.citrus-(1)sweet orange(2)sour orange
– 3.yam-(1)droscoren rotundata-white yam(2)dioscorea alata-water
yam
5ci)
* taungga system is the planting of both food crops and forest trees
on the same piece of land
5ii)
– 1.the prohibition of bush burning
– 2.ban of indiscriminate culting of timbertrees
– 3.encouraging people to plant trees
7ai)
animal Improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding only
those animals that show the greatest merit under consideration such as
good feed conversion,growth rate,disease resistance,egg size etc.
7aii)
Six Aims Of Animal Improvement
i. To produce animals that can give high yield or products in form of
meat,egg,milk,etc.
ii. To produce animals that can provide high quality of products such
as,low back-fat thickness,yolk size,shell hardness,etc.
iii. To produce animals with high feed conversion efficiency.
iv. To produce animals with high growth rate.
v. To produce animals with early maturity.
vi. To produce animals which can adapt to climaic (enviromental) conditions.
8ai)
disease can be defined as any forms of abnormality in the
functions of the tissues,organs of system of the animal body.
8aii)
1.heaalth status of the animal:animals with poor health stand the
rist of getting infected with diseases faster than animals with good
health
2.nutrition:animals which are poorly feed are easily infected with
diseases than animals that are well feed with balanced diet
3.sanitation:-poor sanitation,including dirty environment could
predispose animals to diseases
4.breeds of animals:poor breeds of animals are in position to get
infected with disease than good breeds
5.unfavourable climate conditions:extremes of
temperature,winds,rainfall e.t.c do predispose farm animals to
diseases
8b)
1 animal are culled because of disease
2. failure to reproduce
3. undesirable breed type
4. animals may be culled because of age
5. inherited defects.
6. they may be culled because of death
8c)
1. it maximizes the used of land
2. it maximizes the used of labour
3. birds are protected from harsh weather condition.

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